(s) denotes collaboration with a student


37. DePue, M. K., Tauscher, J., Liu, R., & Woodliff, T. (2023). Attitudes toward individuals with opioid use disorders and criminal justice involvement: An experimental vignette study. Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling. (doi: 10.1002/jaoc.12125)

36. Shi, D., Zhang, B., Liu, R., Jiang, Z. (2023). Evaluating close fit in ordinal factor analysis models with multiply imputed data. Educational and Psychological Measurement. (doi: 10.1177/00131644231158854)

35. DePue, M. K., Swank, J. M., Jo, W., Liu, R. (2023). The predictability of grit on counselor educators’ competencies and publications. Teaching and Supervision in Counseling. (doi:10.7290/tsc05msd2)

34. Jiang, Z., Han, Y., Xu, L., Shi, D., Liu, R., Ouyang, J., Cai, F. (2023). The NEAT equating via chaining random forests in the context of small sample sizes: a machine-learning method. Educational and Psychological Measurement. (doi: 10.1177/00131644221120899)

33. Liu, R., Heo, I., Liu, H., Shi, D., & Jiang, Z. (2023). Applying negative binomial distribution in diagnostic classification models for analyzing count data. Applied Psychological Measurement. (doi: 10.1177/01466216221124604)


32. Jiang, Z., Ouyang, J., Li, L., Han, Y., Xu, L., Liu, R., Sun, J. (2022). Cost-effectiveness analysis in performance assessments: a case study of the objective structured clinical examination. Medical Education Online. (doi: 10.1080/10872981.2022.2136559)

31. Oberheim, S. T., DePue, M. K., Liu, R. (2022). Content development and initial psychometric analysis of the problematic hypersexuality scale (PHS).  Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling. (doi: 10.1002/jaoc.12113)

30. Jiang, Z., Ma, W., Flory, K., Zhang, D., Zhou, W., Shi, D., Hua, X., Liu, R. (2022). Development of a computerized adaptive testing for ADHD using Bayesian Networks: An attempt at classification. Current Psychology. (doi: 10.1007/s12144-022-03056-4)

29. Liu, R., Liu, H., Shi, D., & Jiang, Z. (2022). Diagnostic classification models for a mixture of ordered and non-ordered response options in rating scales. Applied Psychological Measurement. (doi:10.1177/01466216221108132)

28. Liu, R. (2022). Statistical Guideline on Adjusting Type I Error. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine. [Invited Paper] (doi:10.1007/s12529-022-10070-0)

27. Li, H., Hunter, V., Liu, R. (2022). Methods to retrofit and validate Q-matrices for cognitive diagnostic modeling. Quantitative Psychology. (doi: 10.1007/978-3-031-04572-1_16)


26. da Silva, M. A., Liu, R., Huggins-Manley, A. C., & Bazán, J. L. (2021). Bayesian estimation of multidimensional polytomous item response theory models with Q-matrices using Stan. Communications in Statistics - Simulation and Computation. (doi:10.1080/03610918.2021.1977951)

25. Jiang, Z., Raymond, M., DiStefano, C., Shi, D., Liu, R., Sun, J. (2021). A Monte Carlo study of confidence interval methods for generalizability coefficient. Educational and Psychological Measurement. (doi:10.1177/00131644211033899)

24. Liu, R., Liu, H., Shi, D., & Jiang, Z. (2021). Poisson diagnostic classification models: A framework and an exploratory example. Educational and Psychological Measurement. (doi: 10.1177/00131644211017961)

23. Swank, J. M., Liu, R., Colburn, A., & Williams, K. (2021). Development and initial validation of the supervision competencies scale. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling. (doi:10.1007/s10447-021-09427-z)

22. Shi, D., DiStefano, C., Zheng, X., Liu, R., & Jiang. Z. (2021). Fitting latent growth models with small sample sizes and non-normal missing data. International Journal of Behavioral Development. (doi:10.1177/0165025420979365)


21. Liu, R., & Liu, H. (2020). Nested diagnostic classification models for multiple-choice items. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology. (doi:10.1111/bmsp.12214)

20. Liu, R. (2020). Using diagnostic classification models to obtain subskill information and explore its relationship with total scores: the case of the Michigan English Test. Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling.

19. Jiang, Z., Ma, W., Liu, R., Shi, D., & Zhang, J. (2020). Comment on: How sure can we be that a student really failed? On the measurement precision of individual pass-fail decisions from the perspective of Item Response Theory. Medical Teacher. (IF: 2.579, doi: 10.1080/0142159X.2020.1832207)

18. Liu, R., & Shi, D. (2020). Using diagnostic classification models in psychological rating scales. The Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 16(5), 442–456. (doi:10.20982/tqmp.16.5.p442)

17. Swank, J. M., Houseknecht, A., Liu, R. (2020). Development of the teaching competencies scale. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education. (IF: 2.473, doi: 10.1080/02602938.2020.1778634)

16. Lee, M. J.(s), Romero, S., Liu, R., Velozo, C., Gruber-Baldini, A., & Shulman, L. (2020). Multidimensional PROMIS self-efficacy measure for managing chronic conditions. Applied Research in Quality of Life. (doi: 10.1007/s11482-020-09842-1)

  • *The Official Journal of the International Society for Quality-of-Life Studies

15. DePue, M. K., Liu, R., Lambie G. W., & Gonzalez, J. (2020). Examining the effects of the supervisory relationship and therapeutic alliance on client outcomes with novice therapists. Training and Education in Professional Psychology. (doi: 10.1037/tep0000320)

  • *An American Psychological Association (APA) Published Journal


14. Liu, R. (2019). Addressing score comparability in diagnostic classification models: An observed-score equating approach. Behaviormetrika. (doi: 10.1007/s41237-019-00102-7)

13. Richardson, E.(s), DePue, M. K., Therriault, D., Alli, S., & Liu, R. (2019). The influence of substance use patterns on engagement in non-suicidal self-injury (NSI) in adults. Substance Use & Misuse. (doi: 10.1080/10826084.2019.1656254)

  • *Funded by the International Association of Addiction and Offender Counseling, a division of the American Counseling Association.

12. Swank, J. M., Limberg, D., & Liu, R. (2019). Development of the altruism scale for children: an assessment of caring behaviors among children. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development. (doi: 10.1080/07481756.2019.1667245)

  • * Recipient of the 2020 AARC/MECD Patricia B. Elmore Award for Outstanding Research in Measurement and Evaluation

11. Liu, R., & Jiang, Z. (2019). A general diagnostic classification model for rating scales. Behavior Research Methods. (doi: 10.3758/s13428-019-01239-9)


10. Liu, R., & Jiang, Z. (2018). Diagnostic classification models for ordinal item responses. Frontiers in Psychology - Quantitative Psychology and Measurement, 9, 2512. (doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02512)

9. da Silva, M. A. (s), Liu, R., Huggins-Manley, A. C., & Bazán, J. L. (2018). Incorporating the Q-matrix into multidimensional item response theory models. Educational and Psychological Measurement. (doi: 10.1177/0013164418814898)

8. Liu, R., Qian, H., Luo, X., & Woo, A. (2018). Relative diagnostic profile: a subscore reporting framework. Educational and Psychological Measurement,78(6), 1072–1088. (doi:10.1177/0013164417740170)

7. Liu, R. (2018). Misspecification of attribute structure in diagnostic measurement. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 78(4), 605-634. (doi: 10.1177/0013164417702458)

6. Liu, R., Huggins-Manley, A.C., & Bulut, O. (2018). Retrofitting diagnostic classification models to responses from IRT-based assessment forms. Educational and Psychological Measurement,78(3), 357-383. (doi: 10.1177/0013164416685599)

  • *Recipient of the 2017 Distinguished Paper Award of the American Educational Research Association.

  • *Recipient of the 2016 Most Distinguished Paper Award of the Florida Educational Research Association.


5. Gao, M., Miller, D., & Liu, R. (2017). The impact of Q-matrix misspecification and model misuse on classification accuracy in the generalized DINA model. Journal of Measurement and Evaluation in Education and Psychology, 8(4), 391-403. (doi:10.21031/epod.332712)

4. Liu, R., Huggins-Manley, A.C., & Bradshaw, L. (2017). The impact of Q-matrix designs on diagnostic classification accuracy in the presence of attribute hierarchies. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 77(2), 220-240. (doi: 10.1177/0013164416645636)


3. DePue, M. K., Lambie, G. W., Liu, R., & Gonzalez, J. (2016). Investigating the supervisory relationship and the counselor-client therapeutic alliance using structural equation modeling. Counselor Education and Supervision, 55(4), 263-277. (doi: 10.1002/ceas.12053)

  • *Recipient of the 2016 Publication in Counselor Education and Supervision Award of the ACES (Association for Counselor Education and Supervision).

2. Liu, R., & Huggins-Manley, A.C. (2016). The specification of attribute structures and its effects on classification accuracy in diagnostic test design. In van der Ark, L.A., Bolt, D.M., Wang, W.-C., Douglas, J.A., & Wiberg, M. (Eds.) (2016). Quantitative Psychology Research (pp. 243-254). New York: Springer. (doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-38759-8_18)

1. Liu, R., & Huggins-Manley, A.C. (2016). Review of uneducated guesses: using evidence to uncover misguided education policies. Psychometrika, 81(1), 246-248. (doi: 10.1007/s11336-015-9490-9)