Peer-reviewd journal articles

2023 - under construction


Balascio P, Moore M, Gongalla M, Regan A, Ha S, Taylor BD, Hill AV. Measures of Racism and Discrimination in Preterm Birth Studies: A Narrative Synthesis. Obstetrics & Gynecology 2022. Accepted 10/4/2022. In Press

Ha S, Ghimire S*, Martinez V*. Outdoor air pollution and pregnancy loss: a narrative review. Current Epidemiology Reports. (in press) [invited]

Mendola P, Ha S. Beyond the baby in your arms - climate effects last for generations. Fertility and Sterility 2022; S0015-0282(22)00385-5. PMID: 35791979  online ahead of print. [invited]

Zhou M, Chittamuru D, Ha S, Schillinger D, Ramirez S. Protocol: Effectiveness of message content and format on individual and collective efficacy in reducing the intention to consume sugar-sweetened beverages. Contemporary Clinical Trials 2022.

Ha S. The changing climate and pregnancy health. Current Environmental Health Reports 2022.  


Ha S, Martinez V*, Chan-Golston, MA. Air pollution and preterm birth: a time-stratified case-crossover analysis in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Perinatal and Pediatric Epidemiology 2021.

Kanner J**, Stevens D, Nobles C, Rohn M, Ha S, Mannisto T, Ouidir M, Mendola P. Risk of cardiovascular events during labor and delivery associated with acute ambient temperature changes.  The Journal of Climate Change and Health 2021:3

Hall C*, Ha S, Yen I, and Sidra Goldman-Mellor. Risk factors for hyperthermia mortality among emergency department patients. Annals of Epidemiology 2021; S1047-2797(21). PMID: 34547445

Williams AD, Ha S, Shenassa E, Messer L, Kanner J, Mendola P. Joint effects of ethnic enclave residence and air pollution exposure on risk of gestational diabetes mellitus among Asian/Pacific Islander women in the United States. Environmental Health, 2021; 20:56. PMID: 33964949

Ha S, Martinez V*. Associations between disability and infertility among US reproductive-aged women. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2021; 18, 3202. . Published 3/9/2021

Ha S. Air pollution and neurological development in children. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 2021.  PMID: 33300118


  1. Ha S, Nobles C, Kanner J, Sherman S, Cho SH, Perkins N, Williams A, Grobman W, Biggio J, Subramaniam A, Ouidir M, Chen Z, Mendola P. Air pollution exposure monitoring among pregnant women with and without asthma. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2020; 17(13), 4888; Published July 2020
  2. Kanner J, Williams A, Nobles C, Ha S, Ouidir M, Sherman S, Mendola P. Ambient temperature and stillbirth: Risks associated with chronic extreme temperature and acute temperature change. Environmental Research. Accepted 7/13/2020.


  1. Ha S*, Mendola P. Opportunities and challenges to investigate the effects of air pollution on pregnancy loss. Fertility and Sterility, 2019;111(2):256-257. PMID 30691626.
  2. Ha S*, Mendola P. Are we ready to establish a causal relationship between air pollution and pregnancy loss? The Lancet Planetary Health 2019; 3(5):e198-e199. PMID: 31128763.
  3. Ha S*. Yeung E, Bell E, Insaf T, Ghassabian A, Bell G, Muscatiello N, Mendola P. Prenatal and early-life exposures to air pollution and neurodevelopment. Environmental Research 2019; 174:170-175. PMID:
  4. Entwistle MR, Gharibi H, Tavallali P, Cisneros R, Schweizer D, Brown P, Ha S. Air pollution and asthma emergency department visits in Fresno, California, USA, during the warm season 2005-2015: a time-stratified case crossover analysis. Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health 2019; 12(6): 661–672.
  5. Naeem F, Mhaissen MN, McCarty J, Ha S, Rongkavilit C. Disseminated Coccidioidomycosis among children in Central California: a retrospective review. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 2019 38(12):1189-1194. PMID: 31738333.  
  6. Thao C, Burke NJ, Ha S, Joyce AL. Pesticide Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices among Small Scale Hmong Farmers in the Central Valley of California. Journal of Integrated Pest Management 2019; 10(1):32, 1-6.
  7. Williams AD, Messer L, Kanner J, Ha S, Mendola P. Ethnic enclaves and obstetric outcomes among Asian/Pacific Islanders in the United States. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities 2019; PMID: 31728931 doi:


  1. Ha S, Liu D, Zhu Y, Sherman S, Mendola P. Ambient temperature and preterm rupture of membranes. Epidemiology 2018; 29(2):175-182. PMID: 29087988.
  2. Ha S, Sundaram R, Buck Louis G, Nobles C, Seeni I, Sherman S, Mendola P. Ambient air pollution and the risk of pregnancy loss: a prospective cohort study. Fertility and Sterility 2018; 109(1):148-153. PMID: 29153729.
  3. Nobles C, Schisterman EF, Ha S, Sundaram R, Buck Louis G, Sherman S, Mendola P. Time-varying cycle average and daily variation in ambient air pollution and fecundability. Human Reproduction 2018; 33(1):166-176. PMID: 29136143.
  4. Nobles C, Schisterman E, Ha S, Kim K, Mumford S, Buck Louis G, Chen Z, Liu D, Sherman S, Mendola P. Ambient air pollution and semen quality. Environmental Research 2018; 163:228-236. PMID:
  5. Seeni I, Ha S, Nobles C, Liu D, Sherman S, Grantz KL, Mendola P. Air pollution exposure during pregnancy: maternal asthma and neonatal respiratory outcomes. Annals of Epidemiology 2018; 28(9):612-618.e4. PMID: 30153910
  6. Gharibi H, Entwistle MR, Ha S, Gonzalez M, Brown P, Schweizer D, Cisneros R. Ozone pollution and asthma emergency department visits in the Central Valley, California, USA, during June to September of 2015: a time-stratified case-crossover analysis. Journal of Asthma 2018; 9:1-12. PMID: 30299181.
  7. Ha S, Mendola P. Is there a common mechanism underlying air pollution and reproductive outcomes noted in epidemiologic and IVF lab-based studies? Fertility and Sterility 2018; 109(1).


  1. Hu H, Ha S, Xu X. Ozone and Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy in Florida: Identifying Critical Windows of Exposure. Environmental Research 2017; 153:120-125. PMID: 27940104.
  2. Ha S, Liu D, Zhu Y, Kim SS, Sherman S, Mendola P. Ambient temperature and early delivery of singleton pregnancies. Environmental Health Perspectives 2017; 25(3):453-459. PMID: 27580125.
  3. Ha S, Zhu Y, Liu D, Sherman S, Mendola P. Ambient temperature and air quality in relation to small for gestational age and term low birthweight. Environmental Research 2017; 185(4):259-261. PMID: 28258738.
  4. Ha S, Liu D, Zhu Y, Kim SS, Sherman S, Grantz KL, Mendola P. Ambient temperature and stillbirth: a multi-center retrospective cohort study. Environmental Health Perspectives 2017; 125(6):067011. doi: 10.1289/EHP945. PMID: 28650842.
  5. Ha S, Männistö T, Liu D, Sherman S, Ying Q, Mendola P. Air pollution and risk of cardiovascular event at labor and delivery: a case-crossover analysis. Annals of Epidemiology 2017; S1047-2797(16)30351-9. PMID: 28552468.
  6. Zhu Y, Zhang C, Liu D, Ha S, Kim SS, Pollack A, Mendola P. Ambient air pollution and risk of gestational hypertension. American Journal of Epidemiology 2017; 186(3):334-343. PMID: 28472208.
  7. Mendola P, Ha S, Pollack A, Zhu Y, Seeni I, Kim SS, Sherman S, Liu D. Chronic and acute ozone exposure in the week prior to delivery is associated with the risk of stillbirth. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health2017; 14(7). pii: E731. PMID: 28684711
  8. Ha S, Nguyen MK, Liu D, Männistö T, Nobles C, Sherman S, Mendola P. Ambient temperature and risk of cardiovascular event at labor and delivery: A case-crossover study. Environmental Research 2017; 159:622-628. PMID: 28926807.
  9. Mendola P, Ha S, Männistö T, Liu D. Air pollution and cardiovascular events with special reference to labor and delivery. Annals of Epidemiology 2017; 27(10):687-688. PMID: 28919356.
  10. Ha S, Mendola P. Ambient environment and risk of preterm delivery. American Journal of Epidemiology 2017; 185(4):259-261. PMID: 28087511.


  1. Ha S, Hu H, Mao L, Roussos-Ross D, Roth J, Xu X. Potential Selection Bias Associated with Using Geocoded Birth Records for Epidemiological Research. Annals of Epidemiology 2016; 26(3):204-11. PMID: 26907541.
  2. Cai J, Meng X, Wang C, Chen R, Zhou J, Xu X, Ha S, Zhao Z, Kan H. The cold effects on circulatory inflammation, thrombosis and vasoconstriction in type 2 diabetic patients. Science of the Total Environment 2016; 568:271-277, PMID: 27295598
  3. Xu X, Ha S, Basnet R. A Review of Epidemiological Research on Adverse Neurological Effects of Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution. Frontiers in Public Health 2016; 4(suppl4). PMID: 27547751.
  4. Xu X, Hu H, Ha S, Han D. A Smartphone-Assisted Spatial Data Collection Method to Improve Geographic Information Quality: A Pilot Study Using Birth Dataset. Geospatial Health 2016; 11(3):482. PMID: 27903063.


  1. Cai J, Chen R, Wang W, Xu X, Ha S, Kan H. Does CO ambient have protective effect on COPD patients? Environmental Research 2015; 136, 21-26. PMID: 25460616.
  2. Ha S, Hu H, Roth J, Kan H, Xu X. [Editor’s choice] Association between proximity to power plants and adverse birth outcomes. American Journal of Epidemiology 2015; 182(3):215-24. PMID: 26121989.
  3. Wang C, Chen R, Zhao Z, Cai J, Lu J, Ha S, Xu X, Chen X, Kan H. Particulate air pollution and circulating biomarkers among type 2 diabetic mellitus patients: the roles of particle size and time windows of exposure. Environmental Research 2015; 140:112-118. PMID: 25863184.
  4. Chen R, Zhao A, Chen H, Zhao Z, Cai J, Wang C, Yang C, Li H, Xu X, Ha S, Li T, Kan H. Cardiopulmonary benefits of reducing indoor particles of outdoor origin: a randomized double-blind crossover trial of air purifiers. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2015; 65(21):2279-87. PMID: 26022815.
  5. Hu H, Ha S, Warner TD, Roth J, Kan H, Xu X. Association of Atmospheric Particulate Matter and Ozone with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Environmental Health Perspectives 2015; 123(9):853-9. PMID: 25794412.
  6. Yang Y, Chen R, Xu J, Li Q, Xu X, Ha S, Song W, Tan J, Xu F, Kan H. The effects of ambient temperature on outpatient visits for varicella and herpes zoster in Shanghai, China: A time-series study. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 2015; S0190-9622(15) 01929-5. PMID: 26277211.


  1. Ha S, Talbott E, Kan H, Prins C, Xu X.  Effects of heat stress and its effect modifiers on stroke hospitalizations in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. International Archives of Environmental Epidemiology 2014; 87(5):557-65. PMID: 23897226.
  2. Xu X, Hu H, Ha S, Roth J. Ambient Air Pollution and Hypertensive Disorder of Pregnancy. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2014; 68(1):13-20. PMID: 24022815.
  3. Cai J, Zhao A, Zhao J, Chen R, Wang W, Ha S, Xu X, Kan H. Acute effects of air pollution on asthma hospitalization in Shanghai, China. Environmental Pollution 2014;191C:139-144 PMID: 24836410.
  4. Hu H, Ha S, Roth J, Kearney G, Talbott EO, Xu X. Ambient air pollution and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Atmospheric Environment 2014; 97: 336-345. PMID: 25242883.
  5. Ha S, Hu H, Roussos-Ross D, Kearney G, Kan H, Roth J, Xu X. The effects of air pollution on adverse birth outcomes. Environmental Research 2014; 134C:198-204. PMID: 25173052.
  6. Ha S, Thompson LA, Kearney G, Roth J, Xu X. Population Attributable Risks of Neurobehavioral Disorders due to Low Birth Weight in US Children. Advances in Pediatric Research 2014; 1(2):1-10.


  1. Xu X, Sun Y, Ha S, Lissaker C.  Association between Ozone Exposure and Onset of Stroke in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania 1994-2004. Neuroepidemiology 2013;41(1):2-6. PMID: 23548644.
  2. Xu X, Ha S, Kan H, Hu H, Curbow B, Lissaker C. Health Effects of Air Pollution on Length of Respiratory Cancer Survival. BMC Public Health 2013; 13: 800. PMID: 24004483.


  1. Ha, SU. “RE: Use of Penicillin and Other Antibiotics and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis: A Population-based Case Control Study”. American Journal of Epidemiology 2012; 175(7):728. PMID: 22415033.


  1. Xu X, Kan H, and Ha S. Ambient Air Pollution and Reproductive Health. The impact of air pollution: on health, economy, environmental and agricultural sources. Intech Open Access Publisher, 2011 (ISBN 978-953-307-528-0), pages 93-116.